Paul then wrote a Second Letter to the Corinthians, again in response to issues that arose with time. Paul visited Athens and then established a Christian community in Corinth, a seaport in Greece, about the year 51 AD, on his second missionary journey from Antioch, as recorded in the Acts of the Apostles While Paul was on his third journey Acts
National Archives photo N As we near the centennial of the loss of Cyclops, it is appropriate to remember the ship, her officers, and crew and to review their valuable contributions. Navy was in transition from coal burning warships to ships powered by oil.
Dependence on foreign coal and foreign ships to transport that coal were major concerns. During the first fifteen years of the twentieth century, the U.
Navy commissioned a dozen colliers. Some were converted to other types. Overview of Loss — The Last Voyage Cyclops, the only ship of her class, was engaged in the transportation of bulk cargo to and from the United States to Brazil in early On 9 Januaryshe was assigned to Naval Overseas Transportation Service, departing Norfolk the day before with 9, tons of coal for English ships in the South Atlantic.
Rather than proceeding directly to Baltimore, as scheduled, Cyclops deviated to Barbados, arriving on 3 March At this port she was about 1, nautical miles from destination. This was confirmed by a survey board, which recommended that the ship return to the U.
There were suggestions that the ship was overloaded when she departed Brazil. Certainly, the addition of more coal in her bunkers and water at Barbados may have offset any reduction in draft achieved during the voyage north. Post-sinking investigations in Rio concluded that the ship had been heavily loaded.
She had no prior experience carrying ore. Cyclops departed Barbados for Baltimore on 4 March but never was seen again. It was improbable that Cyclops was off Virginia on that date because she was not due at Baltimore until 13 March, and her speed of advance was reduced to about nautical miles per day because of the unseaworthy engine.
The weather off the Virginia Capes on the following day, 10 Marchreportedly was violent. In any event, Cyclops failed to arrive at Baltimore and no wreckage has ever been found.
Absent direct proof it appears most likely that a synergy of events caused the loss of Cyclops.
The ship was operating on a single shaft because of the cracked cylinder. This reduced her speed and maneuverability and left Cyclops at risk of greater damage if she were to suffer a further engineering casualty.
She was loaded deeply, at or beyond her marks. This cargo was new to the ship and it is not clear that the officers, crew, and stevedores in Brazil knew how to properly load, stow, and trim the ore. There have been reports that she previously suffered hull damage due to a coal fire, hull failures, or separation of pipes, or hull and strength members.
She also had problems with extreme rolls. On at least one occasion it was reported that her cargo had shifted. This process may have been unperceivable to the bridge watch, particularly if it occurred during dark or extreme weather; they would have little notice that the ship was about to sink.
If Cyclops had not previously lost her remaining engine, she may have continued to steam along driving the bow underwater, alternatively she capsized.
Barrash, the author of the definitive study of the ship titled simply USS Cyclops[5. Roosevelt Presidential Library, where it has been for over 70 years. More than 90 years after the loss of the ship, naval postmark and cover collectors have been introduced to this unique cover.
Cyclops had a post office on board for about seven months, from mid-July, when she returned from France, until her sinking. During that time she made a brief voyage to Nova Scotia and undertook her fatal cruise to Brazil.
It is likely that Cyclops was carrying the fleet mail from Brazil to the United States when she disappeared.Copied!
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The mysterious loss at sea of USS Cyclops in has spawned a great deal of interest and research by those interested in postal history. The Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue University houses writing resources and instructional material, and we provide these as a free service of the Writing Lab at Purdue.
Dear Casey and Hilary, The news of Jimmy’s loss is heartbreaking. Please know that Rebecca and I are thinking of you, and that there is boundless love and prayer being offered for your family from this side of the continent, too.