Cultural growth process is all about struggle which is a relative disorder. Compared to culture value is a relative construct. On the other hand behaviors are capable of being observed and they lead to acceptance if justified through aesthetic statements or morally through reasoning.
Search for similarity How do MNCs function? All of the traditional methodological questions are relevant with the added complexity of geographical distance. Translation is often less of a problem since most MNCs have a common language across all countries in which they operate.
The primary question is to develop an approach for studying the complexity of large organizations. Culture is often ignored. Synergistic Research Studies of intercultural interaction within work settings Use of similarities and differences as a resource How can the intercultural interaction within a domestic or international organization be managed?
How can organizations create structures and processes which will be effective in working with members of all cultures? Interaction models and integrating processes: What are effective ways to study cross-cultural interaction within organizational settings?
How can universal and culturally specific patterns of management be distinguished? What is the appropriate balance between culturally specific and universal processes within one organization?
How can the proactive use of cultural differences to create universally accepted organizational patterns be studied? The six approaches to cross-cultural research vary in terms of their methodological issues and thus require different measures to cope with the underlying research process.
Whereas parochial research reflects what we would consider a domestic research setting, ethnocentric research replicates domestic studies in another culture. In the latter approach, a key methodological challenge involves the translation of questionnaire items into the language of the research setting.
Polycentric research concerns the study of the particularities of certain cultures or those of organizations operating in these specific cultures. Implicit to this approach is the need to use measures that have been developed in the given culture and reflect its idiosyncrasies.
This may involve close collaboration with local researchers who can serve as cultural mediators. Comparative research aims at contrasting two or more cultures, or organizations operating in these cultures. For example, a researcher may be interested in examining to which extent feelings of organizational identification vary across cultures.
In order to draw meaningful inferences from the study, the researcher needs to ensure equivalence throughout the entire research process. Most importantly, the construct of interest, in the current example organizational identification, requires equivalent treatment in all cultures under study.
This will only be the case if 1 the construct serves the same function functional equivalence2 is expressed in similar attitudes or behaviours conceptual equivalenceand 3 entails identical interpretation of the scale items, response categories and questionnaire stimuli across the respective cultures as shown by similar patterns of item-to-measure correlation metric or instrumental equivalence Harpaz, ; Singh, In addition, the survey administration may require different channels.
For example, online surveys may be an inadequate means of data collection in less developed countries or rural areas where broadband access is not as widely available.
Geocentric research is primarily concerned with the study of multinational companies MNCs that are dispersed across different locations and maintain complex interrelationships. Accordingly, the geographical dispersion of the different social entities under study poses a main methodological challenge.
While this is a central concern in qualitative methods of data collection, the use of surveys, especially web-based surveys, can alleviate this concern. Although cultural differences and idiosyncrasies are often secondary to this line of research, they form an integral part of any geocentric research project and, if not adequately controlled for, can lead to biased interpretations.
Finally, synergistic research deals with cross-cultural interactions in organizations. International assignment research serves as a prime example for this approach as international assignees directly interact with individuals from different cultural backgrounds during their assignment.
In contrast to the other types of cross-cultural research, synergistic research concentrates on understanding the interaction between individuals from different cultures rather than describing specific cultures Adler, This involves an identification of particular MNC structures and processes that are effective for the cross-cultural collaboration between organizational members.
Given the large number of different cultural groups in MNCs, these research aims substantially increase the level of complexity involved in the research project. Depending on which cultural groups are included in the analysis, the researcher may draw different conclusions concerning the universality or culture-specificity of certain behaviours and processes.
In the case of international assignment research, this problem may, for example, be alleviated by holding the assignment culture constant, thus focusing on the cultural particularities of the individual actor with regard to a given cultural context.
This facilitates the assessment of where cultural influences occur and where such influence does not exist. In the following sections, we will discuss in more detail the various methodological challenges identified above. Data Access and Study Population Any research project is dependent on access to sufficient data in order to address the research questions of interest.
In an international research context, data access concerns not only securing an appropriate sample but also ensuring that all data can be feasibly collected given the additional cost that are involved in cross-border mail, telephone and fax correspondence.
Internal validity refers to the extent to which the manipulation of an independent variable is the sole cause of change in a dependent variable. In contrast, external validity concerns the generalizability of the results to the external environment Zikmund, Internal validity is threatened if the observed results are influenced by the confounding effects of extraneous variables.
To control for possible extraneous variation, it is important to select a homogenous population Reynolds et al.Start studying Post-Test. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.
Nancy Adler identifies four challenges to effective cross-cultural communication. or seniority. Pay compression can occur if the labor market, inflation, or some other reason causes market pay increases to rise faster than the. The descriptions point out some of the recurring causes of cross-cultural communication difficulties.2 As you enter into multicultural dialogue or collaboration, keep these generalized differences.
Cross Cultural Theories Based on Bend it Like BECKHAM CROSS CULTURAL THEORIES BASED ON BEND IT LIKE BECKHAM Cross cultural theories based on bend it like Beckham Movies are one way in which different issues such as social and cultural backgrounds of different societies are filmed to educate or enlighten the community at large on different life styles as well as cultural diversity.
Good intercultural and interdisciplinary communication and decision making were key to overcoming these challenges (Katsouyanni, ). One important step in building collaboration is to form a committee consisting of researchers from both sides to discuss and make decisions on important issues (Lewis, Callaham, Kellermann, Marx, & White, ) such as study design, budget management, and .
Bernard Baruch Cross-cultural communication is the process of exchanging meaningful and unambiguous information across cultural boundaries, in a way that preserves mutual respect and minimizes antagonism, that is, it looks at how people from differing cultural backgrounds endeavour to .
This essay details select conceptual and theoretical challenges facing intercultural and cross-cultural communication research in the present and future.
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Notable challenges include defining culture and studying culture in a manner consistent with this definition. Issues related to the unit of analysis and conceptual equivalence are discussed.